Published on: 24 June, 2024

Write down Bresenham's Circle Algorithm .


Scan-Converting a circle using Bresenham's algorithm works as follows: Points are generated from 90° to 45°, moves will be made only in the +x & -y directions as shown in fig:

Bresenham's Circle Algorithm

The best approximation of the true circle will be described by those pixels in the raster that falls the least distance from the true circle. We want to generate the points from

Bresenham's Circle Algorithm

90° to 45°. Assume that the last scan-converted pixel is P1 as shown in fig. Each new point closest to the true circle can be found by taking either of two actions.

  1. Move in the x-direction one unit or
  2. Move in the x- direction one unit & move in the negative y-direction one unit.

Let D (Si) is the distance from the origin to the true circle squared minus the distance to point P3 squared. D (Ti) is the distance from the origin to the true circle squared minus the distance to point P2 squared. Therefore, the following expressions arise.

            D (Si)=(xi-1+1)2+ yi-12 -r2
            D (Ti)=(xi-1+1)2+(yi-1 -1)2-r2

Since D (Si) will always be +ve & D (Ti) will always be -ve, a decision variable d may be defined as follows:

Bresenham's Circle Algorithm

di=D (Si )+ D (Ti)

di=(xi-1+1)2+ yi-12 -r2+(xi-1+1)2+(yi-1 -1)2-r2

From this equation, we can drive initial values of di as

If it is assumed that the circle is centered at the origin, then at the first step x = 0 & y = r.

            di=(0+1)2+r2 -r2+(0+1)2+(r-1)2-r2
            = 3 - 2r

Thereafter, if d_i<0,then only x is incremented.

xi+1=xi+1         di+1=di+ 4xi+6

& if di≥0,then x & y are incremented
xi+1=xi+1         yi+1 =yi+ 1
di+1=di+ 4 (xi-yi)+10

Bresenham's Circle Algorithm:

Step1: Start Algorithm

Step2: Declare p, q, x, y, r, d variables
        p, q are coordinates of the center of the circle
        r is the radius of the circle

Step3: Enter the value of r

Step4: Calculate d = 3 - 2r

Step5: Initialize       x=0
          &nbsy= r

Step6: Check if the whole circle is scan converted
            If x > = y

Step7: Plot eight points by using concepts of eight-way symmetry. The center is at (p, q). Current active pixel is (x, y).
                putpixel (x+p, y+q)
                putpixel (y+p, x+q)
                putpixel (-y+p, x+q)
                putpixel (-x+p, y+q)
                putpixel (-x+p, -y+q)
                putpixel (-y+p, -x+q)
                putpixel (y+p, -x+q)
                putpixel (x+p, -y-q)

Step8: Find location of next pixels to be scanned
            If d < 0
            then d = d + 4x + 6
            increment x = x + 1
            If d ≥ 0
            then d = d + 4 (x - y) + 10
            increment x = x + 1
            decrement y = y - 1

Step9: Go to step 6

Step10: Stop Algorithm

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